Intelligence 30 () – Book reviews The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Reuven Bar-On and others published The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence. The Handbook of Developing Emotional and Social Intelligence. Best Practices, Case Studies, & Tools. Zeroing In on Star Performance. Diana Durek & Wendy.
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The first definitive and comprehensive resource for Emotional Intelligence. Building on nearly eighty years of scientific work, the Handbook of Emotional. Emotional Intelligence – New Perspectives and Applications. Edited by Annamaria Di Fabio. Published by InTech. Janeza Trdine 9, Rijeka, Croatia. Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations In R. Bar -On and J.D.A. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of Emotional. Intelligence.
Children can learn specific emotional behaviors for their culture as a result of social interaction. Emotional competence is transactional within self and between self and others, yet EI is less transactional as the model is centered within the individual [ 20 ].
Saarni [ 21 ] furthers this distinction in her recent review, stating that there are three significant conceptual differences between EI and EC, which are as follows: 1 EC is seen as a set of developed skills; 2 individuals that are emotionally competent are reacting to the emotion-eliciting environments with skills whereas emotionally intelligent individuals are responding with traits residing within those individuals; 3 third is the contribution of personal integrity to mature, emotionally competent functioning.
Therefore, we take EC as the discussion focus as we believe that the focus of growth should be on how much the individuals apply their potential and skills in life contexts, rather than emphasizing internal ability in dealing with emotion-laden situations. Based on this tradition, Saarni [ 7 ] proposed eight skills as the components of emotional competence to handle emotion-eliciting social transactions.
In brief, these eight skills include 1 being aware of one's own emotions, 2 discerning and understanding others' emotions, 3 using the vocabulary of emotion and expressions, 4 having the capacity for empathic involvement, 5 differentiating internal, subjective emotional experience from external, emotional expression, 6 coping adaptively with aversive emotions and distressing circumstances, 7 being aware of emotional communication within relationships, and 8 possessing the capacity for emotional self efficacy.
Lau [ 6 ] classified these eight skills into two broad domains: 1 skills and 2 form the perceptual domain and the others form the behavioral domain. Integrating the key concepts of emotional competence in the literature, Lau [ 6 ] then summarized three major components of emotional competence as its operational definition.
These three components include the skills for identifying personal feelings and those of others, the skills for communicating emotions with others, and the skills for coping with negative emotions and set-backs.
In this paper, this operational definition of emotional competence is adopted. Theories of Emotional Competence Theories of the emotional competence construct are crucial to understanding the application of skills of the individuals to the emotion-laden environments [ 23 ].
There are two dimensions to infer the theories of emotional competence: 1 the construct related to the socialization in respect of functionalist and developmental perspectives and 2 the relationship between the construct and positive youth development.
Lazarus [ 24 ] and Campos et al. In the functionalist perspective, the purpose of responding the stimulations of significant events or situations is stressed. The emotional competence can be developed in response to the dynamic interactions with significant others in the environment. An individual gains the interpretation of different emotions by the environmental and interpersonal stimuli as he or she moves through different developmental stages. The skills in managing and regulating emotions can be acquired through learning and the interpretation of the emotion-eliciting environment with the emphasis on the interpersonal and social interactions within it.
Although the competence can be gained developmentally, Saarni [ 18 , 21 , 23 ] remarks that the acquisition of emotional competence would not be sequential. The second dimension in understanding the theories of the construct is in relation to positive youth development. The perception of the problems generated in the emotion-laden contexts exerts influences on adolescents' emotional well-being.
Concerning the well-being of the adolescents, emotional problems were found to be one of the key competence variables in a large cross-sectional study by Ciarrochi et al. Ineffective orientation to emotion-related problems is related to the difficulty in indentifying the emotions.
The individuals would then turn to destructive forms of emotional management, such as alcohol abuse [ 27 ]. Ciarrochi and Scott [ 4 ] administered a longitudinal study to investigate causal relations and the link between emotional competence and well-being.
They found that people with effective problem orientation were less likely to experience depression, anxiety, and stress and were more likely to experience positive moods.
Catalano et al. In her review of the influence of the emotional competence in teaching and learning, Garner [ 3 ] articulated the theories derived from psychology and education that affect the development of emotional competence in adolescents.
The theories denote the relationship between the positive and stable emotions and academic performance in schools. As shown in past studies, Garner [ 3 ] agreed that adolescents with better managed emotions would perform, both academically and socially, better in schools.
Under the influence of globalization, adolescents are exposed to divergence of their own culture and other cultures. Gross and Levenson [ 29 ] echo this priority with reference to the emotional display rule that would help adolescents to identify the socially and culturally unaccepted emotions.
The knowledge of the cultural rule is transmitted by the emotion-eliciting situations in the adolescents' culture. As the learning process of emotions is procedural [ 21 ], rehearsals of responding to the social contexts would contribute to one's emotional competence. Assessment of Emotional Competence There is a considerable number of assessment tools for EI developed for measuring emotion-related competencies.
The measurements originally developed for EI have been commonly used in studying EC, reflecting that these measurements are compatible for assessing EC. Although there are two approaches for assessing EC, namely, quantitative and qualitative methods, the methods generally used are quantitative in nature. A number of assessment instruments were developed in the past decades and have provided valuable information on social-emotional behaviors in young children [ 30 ].
Nevertheless, there are two concerns in using the assessment instruments of EC. The first is that there are few measures available to assess the EC of adolescents [ 31 ]. Consistent findings appear in different reviews [ 30 , 32 ] that few measures are found to be relevant to assess the EC of preschool and young children.
The second concern is the speculation regarding the psychometric properties of the related instruments or inventories [ 2 , 33 ]. In addition, self-perception reports are commonly used to report the scale of emotion competence. Some researchers may challenge the format of the measurement. Austin et al. Most of the measurements of the emotional competence share the basis of self-report measures [ 1 ]. It is possible that respondents may inflate their ratings as a result of social desirability [ 36 ].
The intention to assess the respondent's tendency of unconscious self-deception should be emphasized in these self-report measures. As such, further development on the consistency of the self-perception reports should be considered.
In order to supplement the quantitative data obtained by using Bar-On EQ-i in assessing EC, Saarni [ 23 ] proposed a series of qualitative methods, such as interviewing the subjects about their emotional experiences, asking the parents and teachers of the subjects to systematically rate and describe the subjects' emotions, observing them directly in emotion-eliciting situations.
Thus, combining both quantitative and qualitative methods may be of greater value and should be considered in assessing EC. Possible Antecedents of Emotional Competence The social environment influences the emotional development of the individual. Using attachment theory, Harris [ 37 ] and Colle and Del Giudice [ 38 ] agree that attachment status and early child-caregiver relationships contribute to children's understanding of emotions and affect children's emotional functioning at all levels [ 39 ].
The different attachment patterns of the individuals might have impact on the development of emotional competence from infancy to adulthood. The secure milieu provided by the caregivers, with their openness of expressivity and coregulation efforts, enhances the internalization of effective emotion regulation of children.
Hence, children grow in a more stable emotional state and with higher tendency to engage in active problem solving and coping. In contrast, if the children's emotions are not attended with support and care, hyperactivating and deactivating styles of coping strategies will be developed [ 38 ]. Hyperactivating children would regulate emotions ineffectively and feel helpless as they fear losing the attention and care of the caregivers.
This may hamper the empathic connection with others and the children may have difficulty in acquiring the social skills and emotional communicative strategies for friendship development [ 23 ]. Children with deactivating style will avoid expressing their emotions, especially negative emotions and eventually become less aware of their own feelings and emotions [ 38 ]. This kind of suppression lasts into adulthood.
In the attachment interview of Roisman et al. Scharfe [ 41 ] suggests that the maternal expressivity influences children's capacity of expressing emotions. The role of secure caregivers usually maternal care and the sense of security are highlighted in the research conducted by Colle and Del Giudice [ 38 ]. Secure children were found to be more capable of regulating their emotions and maintaining organized behaviors during the times of emotional arousals and were showing higher tolerance to frustrations than those children of dismissed and disorganized attachment style.
It seems that the sense of security facilitates children to come up with reflective and effective coping strategies that may benefit in managing the negative emotions in social contexts when they grow older [ 38 ]. The related literature emphasizes the maternal role in influencing the development of the emotional competence of children. In line with the recent investigations and findings on the genetic factors contributing to the development of EI, Cassidy [ 42 ] suggests that children's temperament, which is found to be genetically inherited, would influence the development and regulation of emotions.
The mental status and ability of the individuals exert influence over the understanding emotions too. McAlpine et al. Emotional Competence and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes There is a large number of empirical studies on the expected developmental outcomes of emotional competence among adolescents e.
Colle and Del Giudice [ 38 ] point out that the development of emotional competence reaches its critical phase in middle childhood, which would be the time for children to gain understanding of complex emotions and employ emotion regulation strategies. In middle childhood, children start to experience the complexity of the human world and learn how to cope with these situations. Regulating and controlling oneself becomes an essential ability in the context of social life for children at this crucial stage.
By adolescence, young people start to become aware of the variations in emotion-evocative situations and try to respond to these changing contexts with proper expressions. Adolescents learn how to develop socially desirable coping strategies with increased maturity and broad exposure of social interactions.
Sufficient provision of training on emotional competence to cope effectively with stressful life events is indispensable and beneficial for adolescents during this turbulent life stage. Although their well-being has been found to decrease in early to middle adolescence and reach its lowest point at age 16 [ 46 ], emotional competence is generally hypothesized to be a good predictor of one's sense of subjective well-being [ 19 ].
There is an assumption that emotionally competent individuals will have richer sense of subjective well-being. Zeidner and Olnick-Shemesh [ 19 ] summarize four reasons for this assumption.
First, emotionally competent individuals are more aware of their emotions and more able to regulate them, which will contribute to experience higher levels of well-being. Second, the individuals with emotional competence are assumed to have richer social connections and are able to demonstrate better coping strategies. Third, with more accurate interpretation of the information yielded by the emotions and the environment, individuals with emotional competence can sustain a better sense of well-being.
Fourth, provided that those with emotional competence would have the propensity to experience more positive affects, individuals are more prone to a richer sense of subjective well-being. Having an opportunity to be educated and being young are contributors to subjective well-being [ 47 ].
In the educational settings, school success and academic achievement are crucial to adolescent development. Parker et al. Emotional competence was found to be a significant predictor of academic success for students of all grades without any gender differences [ 2 , 48 ]. The result is consistent with other studies [ 49 , 50 ] stating that students with better academic achievements have better management of emotional dimensions including interpersonal, intrapersonal, adaptability, and stress management.
However, the directionality works both ways: students with better emotional competence may perform better academically. Given that the traditional constructs of intelligence do not predict life success [ 51 ], the importance of prediction by emotional competence is demonstrated. In predicting life success or life satisfaction of school children and adolescents, adolescents who are more emotionally competent are found less aggressive [ 52 ] and less likely to have had unauthorized absence from school [ 53 ].
There is also evidence that EC moderates the link between stress and mental health, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation [ 54 ]. Saarni [ 18 ] explains these personal qualities as individuals behave with emotional competence—using effective coping strategies and regulating the stressor-eliciting emotions.
In their research, Murphy and Moriarty [ 56 ] found that if children could behave emotional-competently when they were exposed to stressors that were within their coping capacity, they were more likely to develop new coping strategies and thus the ability to overcome future stressors would be increased.
In other words, adaptive resilience could be a consequence of the development of emotional competence.
Promotions of Emotional Competence among Adolescents In promoting emotional competence among adolescents, three practical methods are introduced in this review: 1 provision of the platform for discussing emotions, 2 modeling from significant others and the role of family, and 3 scaffolding provided by school-based interventions.
Clore et al. With the provision of a platform for the discussion about emotions, adolescents can gain knowledge in expressing emotions appropriately. The platform is well situated in familial and school settings. If we take the hypothesis of emotional competence as being related to the development of actual skills and the construct is more prone to the individual's perceptions, emotional competence can be taught within social contexts such as family and school settings.
While the competence of emotion is the accumulation and understanding of life experiences within the environment [ 2 , 58 ], the acquisition of EC should involve the teaching of social skills and emotion knowledge [ 59 ]. In the process of teaching, the social information processing model is usually adopted to teach children and adolescents the interpersonal cognition the interpretation of the social interactions among peers and intrapersonal cognition the application of actual social skills through the conceptions of their emotions [ 60 ].
Therefore, integrating these concepts and the model in the school curriculum assists the promotion of emotional competence in adolescents. A simple yet logical assumption follows: if emotional skills are taught through a curricular approach in schools, the emotional competence of adolescents will be increased.
In order to assist adolescents to enhance the sensitivity of the learning of emotions, parents can perform as role models to articulate the learning experiences in these situations in their daily life contexts. Saarni [ 23 ] emphasizes that the emotion socialization processes of the families of origin are crucial to children's development. If the child is living under a secure and supportive family, the child may experience diverse emotions in a safe and predictable place [ 61 ], enabling the child to learn effective coping strategies and be more prosocial.
The supportive parent would act as a good emotion coach to help the child regulate emotional challenges and arousal. In Chinese societies, however, children are socialized and taught to control and suppress emotions within the family [ 6 , 62 ]. Lau [ 6 ] emphasizes that this traditional and patriarchal familial teaching may inhibit the expression of emotions of Chinese children.
The difficulty in modulating the emotions leads the Chinese to display more emotional problems when compared with their western counterparts. In addition, the patriarchal culture of Chinese families also affects girls' expressivity of emotions. Girls are perceived as more verbally and facially expressive than boys.
However, being influenced by the traditional teaching, Chinese girls are more passive and less willing to exhibit their emotions to others.
Lau [ 6 ], therefore, suggests that the gender differences should be taken consideration when designing curricula for youth development.
The importance of promoting emotional education is questioned in the educational settings and the response of the educators to the importance of emotional education is mixed. However, as indicated by substantial literature, there is a direct link between the emotional status of the students and their performance in tests and examinations: increased anxiety and stress equates with poorer performance in these areas.
Emotional stability indicates the wide array of expected and favorable outcomes. Emotional competence is seen as the knowledge about ourselves and others. It is also of the prime indicator of academic success [ 64 ] and this helps to have the capacity to solve problems adaptively, which is the crucial foundation for academic learning. Emotional competence of adolescents could be promoted by school-based intervention programs. The education can be carried out in diverse formats, such as classroom instruction, extra-curricular activities, or curricular-based programs.
This scaffolding provided by school-based programs becomes an important factor for developing students' emotional competence. Concluding Thoughts with Future Research Directions In reviewing the literature, there are constant, overlapping ideations and ambiguity of conceptual formulations of the constructs, EI and EC.
Many researchers have addressed the issue and attempted to differentiate these two; yet overlaps still exist. Therefore, conceptual clarification of the two constructs should be emphasized. The validity of the two constructs is challenged and criticized as discussed in the preceding text. Additional studies are needed to validate the uniqueness of both EI and EC.
Much of the research output is investigated in a cross-sectional nature [ 2 , 3 , 58 ]; more longitudinal investigations are expected to inquire into the influences of emotional competence at different time points and stages of life.
Different methodological techniques should be adopted in the future investigations on emotional competence. In addition to the traditional and static investigation methods by the quantitative approach, multiple modes of portrayal of emotions and other qualitative methods, such as interviews and observations, can be adopted, as emotions are dynamic and fluid in nature.
The influence of school and family is highlighted in the review, yet the role of personnel, like the influence of teachers and parents, needs further exploration. Researchers are showing interest in inquiring into the teachers' or parents' understanding of the students' emotions in relation to adolescents' development of emotional competence in the socialization of emotions [ 3 , 65 ]. However, the idea of teachers and parents as agents of emotion socialization has received limited research attention.
The work in this arena is still in its infancy and requires further investigation. References 1. Assessing students' emotional competence in higher education: development and validation of the widener emotional learning scale.
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. Emotional intelligence: review of research and educational implications. Pastoral Care in Education. Garner PW. Emotional competence and its influences on teaching and learning. Educational Psychology Review. Ciarrochi J, Scott G.
The link between emotional competence and well-being: a longitudinal study. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling. The essence of this criticism is that scientific inquiry depends on valid and consistent construct utilization and that before the introduction of the term EI, psychologists had established theoretical distinctions between factors such as abilities and achievements, skills and habits, attitudes and values, and personality traits and emotional states.
Confusing skills with moral qualities[ edit ] Adam Grant warned of the common but mistaken perception of EI as a desirable moral quality rather than a skill. Landy suggested that the reason why some studies have found a small increase in predictive validity is a methodological fallacy, namely, that alternative explanations have not been completely considered: "EI is compared and contrasted with a measure of abstract intelligence but not with a personality measure, or with a personality measure but not with a measure of academic intelligence.
Generally, self-report EI measures and personality measures have been said to converge because they both purport to measure personality traits. In particular, neuroticism has been said to relate to negative emotionality and anxiety. Intuitively, individuals scoring high on neuroticism are likely to score low on self-report EI measures. The interpretations of the correlations between EI questionnaires and personality have been varied.
The prominent view in the scientific literature is the Trait EI view, which re-interprets EI as a collection of personality traits. Measures knowledge, not ability[ edit ] Further criticism has been leveled by Brody ,  who claimed that unlike tests of cognitive ability, the MSCEIT "tests knowledge of emotions but not necessarily the ability to perform tasks that are related to the knowledge that is assessed".
The main argument is that even though someone knows how he or she should behave in an emotionally laden situation, it doesn't necessarily follow that the person could actually carry out the reported behavior.
Measures personality and general intelligence[ edit ] New research is surfacing that suggests that ability EI measures might be measuring personality in addition to general intelligence. These studies examined the multivariate effects of personality and intelligence on EI and also corrected estimates for measurement error which is often not done in some validation studies [cite source]. For example, a study by Schulte, Ree, Carretta ,  showed that general intelligence measured with the Wonderlic Personnel Test , agreeableness measured by the NEO-PI , as well as gender could reliably be used to predict the measure of EI ability.
They gave a multiple correlation R of. This result has been replicated by Fiori and Antonakis ,;  they found a multiple R of. Self-report measures susceptible to faking[ edit ] More formally termed socially desirable responding SDR , faking good is defined as a response pattern in which test-takers systematically represent themselves with an excessive positive bias Paulhus, This is contrasted with a response style, which is a more long-term trait-like quality.
Considering the contexts some self-report EI inventories are used in e. There are a few methods to prevent socially desirable responding on behavior inventories. Some researchers believe it is necessary to warn test-takers not to fake good before taking a personality test e.
Some inventories use validity scales in order to determine the likelihood or consistency of the responses across all items. Predictive power unsubstantiated[ edit ] Landy  distinguishes between the "commercial wing" and "the academic wing" of the EI movement, basing this distinction on the alleged predictive power of EI as seen by the two currents. According to Landy, the former makes expansive claims on the applied value of EI, while the latter is trying to warn users against these claims.
As an example, Goleman asserts that "the most effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In contrast, Mayer cautions "the popular literature's implication—that highly emotionally intelligent people possess an unqualified advantage in life—appears overly enthusiastic at present and unsubstantiated by reasonable scientific standards.
Thus, some research shows that individuals higher in EI are seen as exhibiting more leadership behaviors. Together, Harms and Crede as well as Barling et al.
Ability-measures of EI fared worst i. However, the validity of these estimates does not include the effects of IQ or the big five personality, which correlate both with EI measures and leadership. Joseph and Newman  meta-analytically showed the same result for Ability EI. However, self-reported and Trait EI measures retain a fair amount of predictive validity for job performance after controlling Big Five traits and IQ.
Meta-analytic evidence confirms that self-reported emotional intelligence predicting job performance is due to mixed EI and trait EI measures' tapping into self-efficacy and self-rated performance, in addition to the domains of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and IQ.
As such, the predictive ability of mixed EI to job performance drops to nil when controlling for these factors. Their study shows EI may serve an identifying tool in understanding who is or is not likely to deal effectively with colleagues. Furthermore, there exists the ability to develop and enhance leadership qualities through the advancement of one's emotional intelligence.
Groves, McEnrue, and Shen found EI can be deliberately developed, specifically facilitating thinking with emotions FT and monitoring and regulation of emotions RE in the workplace. In their section, "Positive Psychology and the Concept of Health", they explain. But these concepts define health in philosophical rather than empirical terms.
Bullying is typically repetitive and enacted by those who are in a position of power over the victim. A growing body of research illustrates a significant relationship between bullying and emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence EI is a set of abilities related to the understanding, use and management of emotion as it relates to one's self and others.
Mayer et al. EI seems to play an important role in both bullying behavior and victimization in bullying; given that EI is illustrated to be malleable, EI education could greatly improve bullying prevention and intervention initiatives. The results of the former study supported the compensatory model: employees with low IQ get higher task performance and organizational citizenship behavior directed at the organization, the higher their EI. It has also been observed that there is no significant link between emotional intelligence and work attitude-behavior.
An explanation for this may suggest gender differences in EI, as women tend to score higher levels than men. Another find was discussed in a study that assessed a possible link between EI and entrepreneurial behaviors and success.
By , companies and consulting firms in U. S had developed programmes that involved EI for training and hiring employees. These findings may contribute to organizations in different ways. For instance, employees high on EI would be more aware of their own emotions and from others, which in turn, could lead companies to better profits and less unnecessary expenses. This is especially important for expatriate managers, who have to deal with mixed emotions and feelings, while adapting to a new working culture.
This is measured by self-reports and different work performance indicators, such as wages, promotions and salary increase. This benefits performance of workers by providing emotional support and instrumental resources needed to succeed in their roles.
Hence, the likelihood of obtaining better results on performance evaluation is greater for employees high in EI than for employees with low EI. Similarly, each of EI streams independently obtained a positive correlation of 0. Stream 2 and 3 showed an incremental validity for predicting job performance over and above personality Five Factor model and general cognitive ability.
Both, stream 2 and 3 were the second most important predictor of job performance below general cognitive ability. Stream 2 explained In order to examine the reliability of these findings, a publication bias analysis was developed. Results indicated that studies on EI-job performance correlation prior to do not present substantial evidences to suggest the presence of publication bias.
Despite the validity of previous findings, some researchers still question whether EI — job performance correlation makes a real impact on business strategies. They argue that the popularity of EI studies is due to media advertising, rather than objective scientific findings.
This relationship requires the presence of other constructs to raise important outcomes. For instance, previous studies found that EI is positively associated with teamwork effectiveness under job contexts of high managerial work demands, which improves job performance. This is due to the activation of strong emotions during the performance on this job context. In this scenario, emotionally intelligent individuals show a better set of resources to succeed in their roles.
However, individuals with high EI show a similar level of performance than non-emotionally intelligent employees under different job contexts. Emotional exhaustion showed a negative association with two components of EI optimism and social skills. This association impacted negatively to job performance, as well. Hence, job performance — EI relationship is stronger under contexts of high emotional exhaustion or burn-out; in other words, employees with high levels of optimism and social skills possess better resources to outperform when facing high emotional exhaustion contexts.
Leadership[ edit ] There are several studies that attempt to study the relationship between EI and leadership. Although in the past a good or effective leader was the one who gave orders and controlled the overall performance of the organization, almost everything is different nowadays: leaders are now expected to motivate and create a sense of belongingness that will make employees feel comfortable, thus, making them work more effectively.