ANIMAL-SPEAK. By Ted Andrews. This is not the complete book written by Ted Andrews, but it does contain a good part of the animal dictionary, as well as. ANIMAL SPEAK BY TED ANDREWS - Animal Speak By Ted Andrews Empedocles - Wikipedia Join LiveJournal (PDF) Test Tube Gods and. Animal Speak provides techniques for recognizing and interpreting the signs and Meet and work with animals as totems and spirit guides by learning the.
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Medicine Cards: the Discovery of Power Through the Way of Animals. Santa Fe, NM. Print. Andrews, Ted. Animal-speak: the Spiritual & Magical Powers of. Access eBook Animal Speak By Ted Andrews [EBOOK EPUB KINDLE PDF]. (c) - page 1 of 7 - Get Instant Access to PDF File: Get Instant Access to Animal Speak By Ted Andrews # EBOOK EPUB KINDLE PDF. Read. Download Online Animal Speak By Ted.
This morning I saw you looking over the hedge that divides Animal Farm from Foxwood. One of Mr. Pilkington's men was standing on the other side of the hedge. And—I was a long way away, but I am almost certain I saw this—he was talking to you and you were allowing him to stroke your nose. What does that mean, Mollie? I wasn't! It isn't true! Look me in the face. Do you give me your word of honour that that man was not stroking your nose?
A thought struck Clover. Without saying anything to the others, she went to Mollie's stall and turned over the straw with her hoof. Hidden under the straw was a little pile of lump sugar and several bunches of ribbon of different colours. Three days later Mollie disappeared.
For some weeks nothing was known of her whereabouts, then the pigeons reported that they had seen her on the other side of Willingdon. She was between the shafts of a smart dogcart painted red and black, which was standing outside a public-house.
A fat red-faced man in check breeches and gaiters, who looked like a publican, was stroking her nose and feeding her with sugar. Her coat was newly clipped and she wore a scarlet ribbon round her forelock. She appeared to be enjoying herself, so the pigeons said. None of the animals ever mentioned Mollie again. In January there came bitterly hard weather.
The earth was like iron, and nothing could be done in the fields. Many meetings were held in the big barn, and the pigs occupied themselves with planning out the work of the coming season. It had come to be accepted that the pigs, who were manifestly cleverer than the other animals, should decide all questions of farm policy, though their decisions had to be ratified by a majority vote. This arrangement would have worked well enough if it had not been for the disputes between Snowball and Napoleon.
These two disagreed at every point where disagreement was possible. If one of them suggested sowing a bigger acreage with barley, the other was certain to demand a bigger acreage of oats, and if one of them said that such and such a field was just right for cabbages, the other would declare that it was useless for anything except roots.
Each had his own following, and there were some violent debates. At the Meetings Snowball often won over the majority by his brilliant speeches, but Napoleon was better at canvassing support for himself in between times.
He was especially successful with the sheep. Of late the sheep had taken to bleating "Four legs good, two legs bad" both in and out of season, and they often interrupted the Meeting with this. It was noticed that they were especially liable to break into "Four legs good, two legs bad" at crucial moments in Snowball's speeches.
Snowball had made a close study of some back numbers of the Farmer and Stockbreeder which he had found in the farmhouse, and was full of plans for innovations and improvements. He talked learnedly about field drains, silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot every day, to save the labour of cartage.
Napoleon produced no schemes of his own, but said quietly that Snowball's would come to nothing, and seemed to be biding his time. But of all their controversies, none was so bitter as the one that took place over the windmill.
In the long pasture, not far from the farm buildings, there was a small knoll which was the highest point on the farm. After surveying the ground, Snowball declared that this was just the place for a windmill, which could be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power. This would light the stalls and warm them in winter, and would also run a circular saw, a chaff-cutter, a mangel-slicer, and an electric milking machine. The animals had never heard of anything of this kind before for the farm was an old-fashioned one and had only the most primitive machinery , and they listened in astonishment while Snowball conjured up pictures of fantastic machines which would do their work for them while they grazed at their ease in the fields or improved their minds with reading and conversation.
Within a few weeks Snowball's plans for the windmill were fully worked out. The mechanical details came mostly from three books which had belonged to Mr. Snowball used as his study a shed which had once been used for incubators and had a smooth wooden floor, suitable for drawing on.
He was closeted there for hours at a time. With his books held open by a stone, and with a piece of chalk gripped between the knuckles of his trotter, he would move rapidly to and fro, drawing in line after line and uttering little whimpers of excitement. Gradually the plans grew into a complicated mass of cranks and cog-wheels, covering more than half the floor, which the other animals found completely unintelligible but very impressive.
All of them came to look at Snowball's drawings at least once a day. Even the hens and ducks came, and were at pains not to tread on the chalk marks.
Only Napoleon held aloof. He had declared himself against the windmill from the start. One day, however, he arrived unexpectedly to examine the plans. He walked heavily round the shed, looked closely at every detail of the plans and snuffed at them once or twice, then stood for a little while contemplating them out of the corner of his eye; then suddenly he lifted his leg, urinated over the plans, and walked out without uttering a word.
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Blakemoreand S. New York:Blackwell. The Second Self. New York:Simon and Schuster. Wieder, D. The explanatoryvalue of these factors is at least as powerful as causal accounts solely premised on behavioristor instinctivist presumptions. Wieder , p. He or she perceivesthat body and, throughit, perceivesthe chimper. Implicithereis a mutual"beingforone another. Fixed throughmutualgazes and such behaviorsas hiding one's face and turningaway, the chimpanzeeis experiencedas activelywitnessingthe chimperand his or her comportment-Ilndeed, this underliesmuch chimpingstrategy.
If LionsCouldSpeak Thechimperalsoexperiencesfellowchimpersandotherchimpanzees as Othersforthe chimpin questionandnotesthatthis chimpis an Otherfor themas well. Those readers skeptical of a perspective premised on an assumption that nonhuman animals have the ability to engage in minded behavior may, nonetheless, also find the study of humansocial exchanges with animalsto be of considerableinterest.
An alterna- tive approachcould focus on building an ethnomethodologicalaccount of the methods employedby pet owners to constructa groundedand seemingly orderlypatternof interac- tion with their animal companions. Pollner and McDonald-Wikler's observations of the techniquesemployed by a family to attributenormalityto a severely retardedchild offer one example of this particularapproach cf.
Goode An understandingof nonhumananimals as minded social actorshas clear implications for research in the situations in which animals and humans interact. In certain circum- stances, it is essential for the investigatorto learnhow to take the role of the animal-other and communicate effectively in the appropriateidiom. As Sanders' research into the animal-humanrelationshipproceeded, for example, he learnedto move, verbalize, and respond in ways which were appropriatelycommunicative and understandableto the canineactorsin the researchsettings.
Elementsof this understandingderivedfromreading ethological accounts e. However, the most useful source of informationSandersemployed in "learningto talk"derivedfromhis directobservationsof the dogs as they interacted. He routinely engaged in what Mandell refers to as "actionreproduction"as the groundingof communicationand became adeptat elemental caninecommunicativeactivities.
Disclosure of his own desires, perspectives,and plans of action came to entail the use of whines, growls, nuzzling, ear-sniffing,body posture, nipping, facial expression, and the other communicativemoves which he saw the dogs employ frequently and effectively with each other. Sanders commonly assumed what might, after Mandell's discussion of her nursery-schoolresearch,be referredto as the "least-humanrole.
Learningto speak in the animal idiom is frequentlyadvocatedby animaltrainersand is a common practice for ethologists. For example, in his study of feral cats, Roger Tabor credits his acceptance as a "participantobserver"to his ability to speak what he refersto as "pidgin-cat.
Similarly, Blake and Hearne in their trainingwork with horses and dogs and Fossey , Goodall , and Strum in their ethological studies of free-ranging primates,stress the central methodologicaland practicalimportanceof learningto speak and behaveappropriatelygiven the values and expectationsof the animalswith whom one is interacting.
A few researchersoutside of sociology have tried to specify the process by which humanbeings can understandthe animal'sperspective. Shapiro a calls his approach "kinestheticempathy. He maintains b, p. Perhapsat its most limited, this generalareaof researchwill shed light on the central role animals occupy in human culture.
A far more ambitious researchgoal is to expand the sociological view to include a focus on interactionswith nonhuman-though minded-social beings. A centralpropositionhere is that the differ- ence between the abilities of people and nonhuman animals-a perceived difference which has thus far excluded animals from serious sociological attention-is a matterof degree ratherthankind. It is only throughacknowledgingthatour animalcompanionsare eminently conscious partners in social interactionthat we will come to examine and understandtheir perspectives and behaviors.
This understandingcan be achieved only if we make the same assumption that qualitative researchersmake when they investigate other alien-though knowable-minds and worlds. Intimateinteractionand empathetic partakingof the perspectiveof the other are the majorsources of this knowledge. The projectadvocatedhere can, we believe, significantlyexpandour understandingof how mind is constituted. Empathetic,disciplined investigationof the routine social ex- changes between people and their nonhumancompanions necessarily focuses on how human actors construct or avoid constructing an understandingof the animal-other's subjective experience.
As such, the concept of mind is moved beyond the conventional Meadianorientationin which mind is an "object"constitutedin the internalconversation of the individualactor. In contrast, examinationof animal-humaninteractionsleads to a far more social perspective on mind; it is reconceived as the product of interactionin which intimatesare actively involved in contextualizing,identifying, understanding,and responding to the defined subjective experience of the nonverbalother.
Animal-human researchcan, therefore, build upon and expand the somewhatmore conventionalinvesti- gations of interactionswith other nonverbalhumanactors such as infants eg.
This refocused attention to mindedness as a feature of sociogenic identity opens the door to an expanded understandingof a variety of other key symbolic interactionist concepts and concerns. For example, how does the centralactivity of "takingthe role of the other"proceed apartfrom conventionallinguisticexchanges?
Whatmethodsdo actors use to define situations so as to contextualize interactionsand thereby imbue them with meaning and order? What is the role of emotional experience in the structuringof inter- subjective encounters? The repertoireof methodological approaches available to sociologists can also be expanded and refined through attending to human definitions of and interactionswith nonhumananimals. The study of animal-humaninteractionoffers a substantivearea in which emotionally focused, self-attentive, postpositivist techniques are especially rele- If LionsCouldSpeak vant.
In turn,this attentionto ethnographicwork as a subject-to-subjectendeavorwill lead to furtherinsight into the possibilities of emancipatoryinterventionsin a variety of social situations.
Intimatefamiliarity with the perspectives and experiences of nonhumananimals de- rived from direct research involvement in those settings in which animals and humans interactmay present the investigatorwith intensely emotional and ethically challenging decisions.
As more knowledge is gained about the orientations, behavioral patterns, feelings, and requirementsof animalsand the goals and perspectivesof those humanswho live and work with them, researchersare likely to feel strongly inclined to intervene. In most field studies, researchersshy away from makingany such interventionfor fear that it mightjeopardizetheir access or change the scene in an "unnatural"way. However, most of these conventionalstudies rarelyfocus on those who have literallyno access to power or ability to express concerns, as is the case with animals.
The sensitive ethnographer investigating human-animalrelationships may well conclude that it is appropriateto exercise "conscious partiality" Mies instead of maintaininga neutralstance.
Much of the impetus for interventionin the power relationshipsintegral to the field situations in which ethnographerswork comes from feminist critiques of conventional science and the objectivist methodological stance central to scientific dogma. Feminist scholarsemphasize how gender has shaped what is "known"about the social world and increasinglyhave come to advocate a new way of seeing that is groundedin naturalistic methodsand rejects the masculinistpreconceptionswhich structuretraditionaltheoriesof social life see Cook and Fonow ; Gorelick ; Haraway;Keller ; Tanner ; Zihlman Feminist writers also have refocused perspectives on both the meansand ends of the researchendeavor.
Naturalistic,participatory,emotionallyfocused, self-attentiveapproacheslead necessarilyto the collection of informationthat is emanci- patory and reconstructsperspectives on the place of humans in nature. Interventionin destructivepatternsof domination-domination of the naturalenvironment Diamondand Orenstein ; Plant and domination on the basis of racial, ethnic, economic, gender, and species categories-is an ethical mandateintegralto the researchprocess.
In this light, emancipatoryinvolvement directed at easing the lot of animals in the myriad settings in which they interact with, and are dominated by, humans is an essential- though practicallyproblematic--goal see Adams ; Donovan According to Marcus , p.
To do this, however, animals, as part of "nature,"must be refigured. As Haraway , p. The ultimate utility of the inti- mate, emotionally aware, introspective, intervention-directed, appreciative study of ani- mals and their relationships with humans is the promise this endeavor offers of countering the masculinist, positivist, structuralist, reductionist view of the natural world and the place of "man" within that world.
Rather than a world separated into subjects scientists, men, the powerful and objects women, animals, "savages" , the image of the world ultimately offered is one composed of subjects-in-interaction, human and nonhuman actors cooperating and strug- gling with the historical, political, cultural forces in which their activities are embedded.
The authors appreciate the comments provided by Norman Denzin and anonymous reviewers for this journal. The title is taken from Wittgenstein , p. Thoughcommonly employed by social analystsfor some time e. The experienceof animal-humaninteractioncan, we believe, be richly revealed as researchersinteractingwith pets in both privateand public settings systemat- ically begin to construct "autoethnographies,"descriptive and intensely introspective accounts detailing their intellectualand emotional experiences duringthe course of encounteringand living with animals in a varietyof social settings see Denzin ; Ellis ; Hayano We see the autoethnographicapproachas holding special promisefor enlargingan emotionallyfocused, thickly described, and disciplined account of human interactionswith animals, one that reestablishesan emphasis upon ethnographicwork as leading to an artistically constructedaccount of personal experiencein the field.
Autoethnographicwork with animalsin those situationswhere the researcher is naturallyand fully involved offers the optimal source of data relevantto buildinga complete and emotionally informedaccount of the animal-other'sperspective.
In this light, see the discussions of play exchanges betweendogs and people e. This focus on the importanceof ethical interventionin the lot of animalsis amply illustrated by an exchange between noted chimpanzee researcherJane Goodall and a conventionally minded questionerduring a lecture. When Goodall described attempts to treat disease among the chim- panzees she was studying, a memberof the audience was incredulous.
Goodall, you don't interferewith the populationyou are studying? If LionsCouldSpeak 4. In her recent assessment of the potentials of a postmodernsocial science, Rosenau , p. New York:Continuum. Arluke, A. Baer, Ted. Communicatingwith YourDog. Hauppauge,NY: Barrons. Becker, Ernest. Stone and H. New York: Wiley. Blake, Henry. London:Souvenir Press. Bogdan, Robertand Steven Taylor. Brabant,Sarahand Linda Mooney.
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